» Code examples / Computer Vision / Grad-CAM class activation visualization

Grad-CAM class activation visualization

Author: fchollet
Date created: 2020/04/26
Last modified: 2020/05/14
Description: How to obtain a class activation heatmap for an image classification model.

View in Colab GitHub source

Adapted from Deep Learning with Python (2017).


import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow import keras

# Display
from IPython.display import Image
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib.cm as cm

Configurable parameters

You can change these to another model.

To get the values for last_conv_layer_name and classifier_layer_names, use model.summary() to see the names of all layers in the model.

model_builder = keras.applications.xception.Xception
img_size = (299, 299)
preprocess_input = keras.applications.xception.preprocess_input
decode_predictions = keras.applications.xception.decode_predictions

last_conv_layer_name = "block14_sepconv2_act"
classifier_layer_names = [

# The local path to our target image
img_path = keras.utils.get_file(
    "african_elephant.jpg", " https://i.imgur.com/Bvro0YD.png"



The Grad-CAM algorithm

def get_img_array(img_path, size):
    # `img` is a PIL image of size 299x299
    img = keras.preprocessing.image.load_img(img_path, target_size=size)
    # `array` is a float32 Numpy array of shape (299, 299, 3)
    array = keras.preprocessing.image.img_to_array(img)
    # We add a dimension to transform our array into a "batch"
    # of size (1, 299, 299, 3)
    array = np.expand_dims(array, axis=0)
    return array

def make_gradcam_heatmap(
    img_array, model, last_conv_layer_name, classifier_layer_names
    # First, we create a model that maps the input image to the activations
    # of the last conv layer
    last_conv_layer = model.get_layer(last_conv_layer_name)
    last_conv_layer_model = keras.Model(model.inputs, last_conv_layer.output)

    # Second, we create a model that maps the activations of the last conv
    # layer to the final class predictions
    classifier_input = keras.Input(shape=last_conv_layer.output.shape[1:])
    x = classifier_input
    for layer_name in classifier_layer_names:
        x = model.get_layer(layer_name)(x)
    classifier_model = keras.Model(classifier_input, x)

    # Then, we compute the gradient of the top predicted class for our input image
    # with respect to the activations of the last conv layer
    with tf.GradientTape() as tape:
        # Compute activations of the last conv layer and make the tape watch it
        last_conv_layer_output = last_conv_layer_model(img_array)
        # Compute class predictions
        preds = classifier_model(last_conv_layer_output)
        top_pred_index = tf.argmax(preds[0])
        top_class_channel = preds[:, top_pred_index]

    # This is the gradient of the top predicted class with regard to
    # the output feature map of the last conv layer
    grads = tape.gradient(top_class_channel, last_conv_layer_output)

    # This is a vector where each entry is the mean intensity of the gradient
    # over a specific feature map channel
    pooled_grads = tf.reduce_mean(grads, axis=(0, 1, 2))

    # We multiply each channel in the feature map array
    # by "how important this channel is" with regard to the top predicted class
    last_conv_layer_output = last_conv_layer_output.numpy()[0]
    pooled_grads = pooled_grads.numpy()
    for i in range(pooled_grads.shape[-1]):
        last_conv_layer_output[:, :, i] *= pooled_grads[i]

    # The channel-wise mean of the resulting feature map
    # is our heatmap of class activation
    heatmap = np.mean(last_conv_layer_output, axis=-1)

    # For visualization purpose, we will also normalize the heatmap between 0 & 1
    heatmap = np.maximum(heatmap, 0) / np.max(heatmap)
    return heatmap

Let's test-drive it

# Prepare image
img_array = preprocess_input(get_img_array(img_path, size=img_size))

# Make model
model = model_builder(weights="imagenet")

# Print what the top predicted class is
preds = model.predict(img_array)
print("Predicted:", decode_predictions(preds, top=1)[0])

# Generate class activation heatmap
heatmap = make_gradcam_heatmap(
    img_array, model, last_conv_layer_name, classifier_layer_names

# Display heatmap
Predicted: [('n02504458', 'African_elephant', 0.8871446)]


Create a superimposed visualization

# We load the original image
img = keras.preprocessing.image.load_img(img_path)
img = keras.preprocessing.image.img_to_array(img)

# We rescale heatmap to a range 0-255
heatmap = np.uint8(255 * heatmap)

# We use jet colormap to colorize heatmap
jet = cm.get_cmap("jet")

# We use RGB values of the colormap
jet_colors = jet(np.arange(256))[:, :3]
jet_heatmap = jet_colors[heatmap]

# We create an image with RGB colorized heatmap
jet_heatmap = keras.preprocessing.image.array_to_img(jet_heatmap)
jet_heatmap = jet_heatmap.resize((img.shape[1], img.shape[0]))
jet_heatmap = keras.preprocessing.image.img_to_array(jet_heatmap)

# Superimpose the heatmap on original image
superimposed_img = jet_heatmap * 0.4 + img
superimposed_img = keras.preprocessing.image.array_to_img(superimposed_img)

# Save the superimposed image
save_path = "elephant_cam.jpg"

# Display Grad CAM