Code examples / Generative Deep Learning / GPT text generation from scratch with KerasNLP

GPT text generation from scratch with KerasNLP

Author: Jesse Chan
Date created: 2022/07/25
Last modified: 2022/07/25
Description: Using KerasNLP to train a mini-GPT model for text generation.

ⓘ This example uses Keras 3

View in Colab GitHub source


In this example, we will use KerasNLP to build a scaled down Generative Pre-Trained (GPT) model. GPT is a Transformer-based model that allows you to generate sophisticated text from a prompt.

We will train the model on the simplebooks-92 corpus, which is a dataset made from several novels. It is a good dataset for this example since it has a small vocabulary and high word frequency, which is beneficial when training a model with few parameters.

This example combines concepts from Text generation with a miniature GPT with KerasNLP abstractions. We will demonstrate how KerasNLP tokenization, layers and metrics simplify the training process, and then show how to generate output text using the KerasNLP sampling utilities.

Note: If you are running this example on a Colab, make sure to enable GPU runtime for faster training.

This example requires KerasNLP. You can install it via the following command: pip install keras-nlp


!pip install -q --upgrade keras-nlp
!pip install -q --upgrade keras  # Upgrade to Keras 3.
import os
import keras_nlp
import keras

import as tf_data
import tensorflow.strings as tf_strings

Settings & hyperparameters

# Data
MIN_STRING_LEN = 512  # Strings shorter than this will be discarded
SEQ_LEN = 128  # Length of training sequences, in tokens

# Model
VOCAB_SIZE = 5000  # Limits parameters in model.

# Training

# Inference

Load the data

Now, let's download the dataset! The SimpleBooks dataset consists of 1,573 Gutenberg books, and has one of the smallest vocabulary size to word-level tokens ratio. It has a vocabulary size of ~98k, a third of WikiText-103's, with around the same number of tokens (~100M). This makes it easy to fit a small model.

dir = os.path.expanduser("~/.keras/datasets/simplebooks/")

# Load simplebooks-92 train set and filter out short lines.
raw_train_ds = (
    tf_data.TextLineDataset(dir + "simplebooks-92-raw/train.txt")
    .filter(lambda x: tf_strings.length(x) > MIN_STRING_LEN)

# Load simplebooks-92 validation set and filter out short lines.
raw_val_ds = (
    tf_data.TextLineDataset(dir + "simplebooks-92-raw/valid.txt")
    .filter(lambda x: tf_strings.length(x) > MIN_STRING_LEN)
Downloading data from
 282386239/282386239 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 7s 0us/step

Train the tokenizer

We train the tokenizer from the training dataset for a vocabulary size of VOCAB_SIZE, which is a tuned hyperparameter. We want to limit the vocabulary as much as possible, as we will see later on that it has a large effect on the number of model parameters. We also don't want to include too few vocabulary terms, or there would be too many out-of-vocabulary (OOV) sub-words. In addition, three tokens are reserved in the vocabulary:

  • "[PAD]" for padding sequences to SEQ_LEN. This token has index 0 in both reserved_tokens and vocab, since WordPieceTokenizer (and other layers) consider 0/vocab[0] as the default padding.
  • "[UNK]" for OOV sub-words, which should match the default oov_token="[UNK]" in WordPieceTokenizer.
  • "[BOS]" stands for beginning of sentence, but here technically it is a token representing the beginning of each line of training data.
# Train tokenizer vocabulary
vocab = keras_nlp.tokenizers.compute_word_piece_vocabulary(
    reserved_tokens=["[PAD]", "[UNK]", "[BOS]"],

Load tokenizer

We use the vocabulary data to initialize keras_nlp.tokenizers.WordPieceTokenizer. WordPieceTokenizer is an efficient implementation of the WordPiece algorithm used by BERT and other models. It will strip, lower-case and do other irreversible preprocessing operations.

tokenizer = keras_nlp.tokenizers.WordPieceTokenizer(

Tokenize data

We preprocess the dataset by tokenizing and splitting it into features and labels.

# packer adds a start token
start_packer = keras_nlp.layers.StartEndPacker(

def preprocess(inputs):
    outputs = tokenizer(inputs)
    features = start_packer(outputs)
    labels = outputs
    return features, labels

# Tokenize and split into train and label sequences.
train_ds =, num_parallel_calls=tf_data.AUTOTUNE).prefetch(
val_ds =, num_parallel_calls=tf_data.AUTOTUNE).prefetch(

Build the model

We create our scaled down GPT model with the following layers:

inputs = keras.layers.Input(shape=(None,), dtype="int32")
# Embedding.
embedding_layer = keras_nlp.layers.TokenAndPositionEmbedding(
x = embedding_layer(inputs)
# Transformer decoders.
for _ in range(NUM_LAYERS):
    decoder_layer = keras_nlp.layers.TransformerDecoder(
    x = decoder_layer(x)  # Giving one argument only skips cross-attention.
# Output.
outputs = keras.layers.Dense(VOCAB_SIZE)(x)
model = keras.Model(inputs=inputs, outputs=outputs)
loss_fn = keras.losses.SparseCategoricalCrossentropy(from_logits=True)
perplexity = keras_nlp.metrics.Perplexity(from_logits=True, mask_token_id=0)
model.compile(optimizer="adam", loss=loss_fn, metrics=[perplexity])

Let's take a look at our model summary - a large majority of the parameters are in the token_and_position_embedding and the output dense layer! This means that the vocabulary size (VOCAB_SIZE) has a large effect on the size of the model, while the number of Transformer decoder layers (NUM_LAYERS) doesn't affect it as much.

Model: "functional_1"
┃ Layer (type)                     Output Shape                  Param # ┃
│ input_layer (InputLayer)        │ (None, None)              │          0 │
│ token_and_position_embedding    │ (None, None, 256)         │  1,312,768 │
│ (TokenAndPositionEmbedding)     │                           │            │
│ transformer_decoder             │ (None, None, 256)         │    329,085 │
│ (TransformerDecoder)            │                           │            │
│ transformer_decoder_1           │ (None, None, 256)         │    329,085 │
│ (TransformerDecoder)            │                           │            │
│ dense (Dense)                   │ (None, None, 5000)        │  1,285,000 │
 Total params: 3,255,938 (12.42 MB)
 Trainable params: 3,255,938 (12.42 MB)
 Non-trainable params: 0 (0.00 B)


Now that we have our model, let's train it with the fit() method., validation_data=val_ds, epochs=EPOCHS)
Epoch 1/5
 2445/2445 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 216s 66ms/step - loss: 5.0008 - perplexity: 180.0715 - val_loss: 4.2176 - val_perplexity: 68.0438
Epoch 2/5
 2445/2445 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 127s 48ms/step - loss: 4.1699 - perplexity: 64.7740 - val_loss: 4.0553 - val_perplexity: 57.7996
Epoch 3/5
 2445/2445 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 126s 47ms/step - loss: 4.0286 - perplexity: 56.2138 - val_loss: 4.0134 - val_perplexity: 55.4446
Epoch 4/5
 2445/2445 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 134s 50ms/step - loss: 3.9576 - perplexity: 52.3643 - val_loss: 3.9900 - val_perplexity: 54.1153
Epoch 5/5
 2445/2445 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ 135s 51ms/step - loss: 3.9080 - perplexity: 49.8242 - val_loss: 3.9500 - val_perplexity: 52.0006

<keras.src.callbacks.history.History at 0x7f7de0365ba0>


With our trained model, we can test it out to gauge its performance. To do this we can seed our model with an input sequence starting with the "[BOS]" token, and progressively sample the model by making predictions for each subsequent token in a loop.

To start lets build a prompt with the same shape as our model inputs, containing only the "[BOS]" token.

# The "packer" layers adds the [BOS] token for us.
prompt_tokens = start_packer(tokenizer([""]))
<tf.Tensor: shape=(1, 128), dtype=int32, numpy=
array([[2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
        0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
        0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
        0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
        0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
        0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]],

We will use the keras_nlp.samplers module for inference, which requires a callback function wrapping the model we just trained. This wrapper calls the model and returns the logit predictions for the current token we are generating.

Note: There are two pieces of more advanced functionality available when defining your callback. The first is the ability to take in a cache of states computed in previous generation steps, which can be used to speed up generation. The second is the ability to output the final dense "hidden state" of each generated token. This is used by keras_nlp.samplers.ContrastiveSampler, which avoids repetition by penalizing repeated hidden states. Both are optional, and we will ignore them for now.

def next(prompt, cache, index):
    logits = model(prompt)[:, index - 1, :]
    # Ignore hidden states for now; only needed for contrastive search.
    hidden_states = None
    return logits, hidden_states, cache

Creating the wrapper function is the most complex part of using these functions. Now that it's done, let's test out the different utilities, starting with greedy search.

We greedily pick the most probable token at each timestep. In other words, we get the argmax of the model output.

sampler = keras_nlp.samplers.GreedySampler()
output_tokens = sampler(
    index=1,  # Start sampling immediately after the [BOS] token.
txt = tokenizer.detokenize(output_tokens)
print(f"Greedy search generated text: \n{txt}\n")
Greedy search generated text: 
[b'[BOS] " i \' m going to tell you , " said the boy , " i \' ll tell you , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good friend , and you \' ll be a good']

As you can see, greedy search starts out making some sense, but quickly starts repeating itself. This is a common problem with text generation that can be fixed by some of the probabilistic text generation utilities shown later on!

At a high-level, beam search keeps track of the num_beams most probable sequences at each timestep, and predicts the best next token from all sequences. It is an improvement over greedy search since it stores more possibilities. However, it is less efficient than greedy search since it has to compute and store multiple potential sequences.

Note: beam search with num_beams=1 is identical to greedy search.

sampler = keras_nlp.samplers.BeamSampler(num_beams=10)
output_tokens = sampler(
txt = tokenizer.detokenize(output_tokens)
print(f"Beam search generated text: \n{txt}\n")
Beam search generated text: 
[b'[BOS] " i don \' t know anything about it , " she said . " i don \' t know anything about it . i don \' t know anything about it , but i don \' t know anything about it . i don \' t know anything about it , but i don \' t know anything about it . i don \' t know anything about it , but i don \' t know it . i don \' t know it , but i don \' t know it . i don \' t know it , but i don \' t know it . i don \' t know it , but i don \' t know it . i don \'']

Similar to greedy search, beam search quickly starts repeating itself, since it is still a deterministic method.

Random search is our first probabilistic method. At each time step, it samples the next token using the softmax probabilities provided by the model.

sampler = keras_nlp.samplers.RandomSampler()
output_tokens = sampler(
txt = tokenizer.detokenize(output_tokens)
print(f"Random search generated text: \n{txt}\n")
Random search generated text: 
[b'[BOS] eleanor . like ice , not children would have suspicious forehead . they will see him , no goods in her plums . i have made a stump one , on the occasion , - - it is sacred , and one is unholy - plaything - - the partial consequences , and one refuge in a style of a boy , who was his grandmother . it was a young gentleman who bore off upon the middle of the day , rush and as he maltreated the female society , were growing at once . in and out of the craid little plays , stopping']

Voilà, no repetitions! However, with random search, we may see some nonsensical words appearing since any word in the vocabulary has a chance of appearing with this sampling method. This is fixed by our next search utility, top-k search.

Similar to random search, we sample the next token from the probability distribution provided by the model. The only difference is that here, we select out the top k most probable tokens, and distribute the probability mass over them before sampling. This way, we won't be sampling from low probability tokens, and hence we would have less nonsensical words!

sampler = keras_nlp.samplers.TopKSampler(k=10)
output_tokens = sampler(
txt = tokenizer.detokenize(output_tokens)
print(f"Top-K search generated text: \n{txt}\n")
Top-K search generated text: 
[b'[BOS] " the young man was not the one , and the boy went away to the green forest . they were a little girl \' s wife , and the child loved him as much as he did , and he had often heard of a little girl who lived near the house . they were too tired to go , and when they went down to the barns and get into the barn , and they got the first of the barns that they had been taught to do so , and the little people went to their homes . she did , she told them that she had been a very clever , and they had made the first . she knew they']

Even with the top-k search, there is something to improve upon. With top-k search, the number k is fixed, which means it selects the same number of tokens for any probability distribution. Consider two scenarios, one where the probability mass is concentrated over 2 words and another where the probability mass is evenly concentrated across 10. Should we choose k=2 or k=10? There is no one size that fits all k here.

This is where top-p search comes in! Instead of choosing a k, we choose a probability p that we want the probabilities of the top tokens to sum up to. This way, we can dynamically adjust the k based on the probability distribution. By setting p=0.9, if 90% of the probability mass is concentrated on the top 2 tokens, we can filter out the top 2 tokens to sample from. If instead the 90% is distributed over 10 tokens, it will similarly filter out the top 10 tokens to sample from.

sampler = keras_nlp.samplers.TopPSampler(p=0.5)
output_tokens = sampler(
txt = tokenizer.detokenize(output_tokens)
print(f"Top-P search generated text: \n{txt}\n")
Top-P search generated text: 
[b'[BOS] the children were both born in the spring , and the youngest sister were very much like the other children , but they did not see them . they were very happy , and their mother was a beautiful one . the youngest was one of the youngest sister of the youngest , and the youngest baby was very fond of the children . when they came home , they would see a little girl in the house , and had the beautiful family , and the children of the children had to sit and look on their backs , and the eldest children were very long , and they were so bright and happy , as they were , they had never noticed their hair ,']

Using callbacks for text generation

We can also wrap the utilities in a callback, which allows you to print out a prediction sequence for every epoch of the model! Here is an example of a callback for top-k search:

class TopKTextGenerator(keras.callbacks.Callback):
    """A callback to generate text from a trained model using top-k."""

    def __init__(self, k):
        self.sampler = keras_nlp.samplers.TopKSampler(k)

    def on_epoch_end(self, epoch, logs=None):
        output_tokens = self.sampler(
        txt = tokenizer.detokenize(output_tokens)
        print(f"Top-K search generated text: \n{txt}\n")

text_generation_callback = TopKTextGenerator(k=10)
# Dummy training loop to demonstrate callback., verbose=2, epochs=2, callbacks=[text_generation_callback])
Epoch 1/2
Top-K search generated text: 
[b"[BOS] the young man was in the middle of a month , and he was able to take the crotch , but a long time , for he felt very well for himself in the sepoys ' s hands were chalks . he was the only boy , and he had a few years before been married , and the man said he was a tall one . he was a very handsome , and he was a very handsome young fellow , and a handsome , noble young man , but a boy , and man . he was a very handsome man , and was tall and handsome , and he looked like a gentleman . he was an"]
1/1 - 16s - 16s/step - loss: 3.9454 - perplexity: 51.6987
Epoch 2/2
Top-K search generated text: 
[b'[BOS] " well , it is true . it is true that i should go to the house of a collector , in the matter of prussia that there is no other way there . there is no chance of being in the habit of being in the way of an invasion . i know not what i have done , but i have seen the man in the middle of a day . the next morning i shall take him to my father , for i am not the very day of the town , which would have been a little more than the one \' s daughter , i think it over and the whole affair will be']
1/1 - 17s - 17s/step - loss: 3.7860 - perplexity: 44.0932

<keras.src.callbacks.history.History at 0x7f7de0325600>


To recap, in this example, we use KerasNLP layers to train a sub-word vocabulary, tokenize training data, create a miniature GPT model, and perform inference with the text generation library.

If you would like to understand how Transformers work, or learn more about training the full GPT model, here are some further readings: