Writing your own Keras layers

For simple, stateless custom operations, you are probably better off using layers.core.Lambda layers. But for any custom operation that has trainable weights, you should implement your own layer.

Here is the skeleton of a Keras layer, as of Keras 2.0 (if you have an older version, please upgrade). There are only three methods you need to implement:

  • build(input_shape): this is where you will define your weights. This method must set self.built = True at the end, which can be done by calling super([Layer], self).build().
  • call(x): this is where the layer's logic lives. Unless you want your layer to support masking, you only have to care about the first argument passed to call: the input tensor.
  • compute_output_shape(input_shape): in case your layer modifies the shape of its input, you should specify here the shape transformation logic. This allows Keras to do automatic shape inference.
from keras import backend as K
from keras.engine.topology import Layer
import numpy as np

class MyLayer(Layer):

    def __init__(self, output_dim, **kwargs):
        self.output_dim = output_dim
        super(MyLayer, self).__init__(**kwargs)

    def build(self, input_shape):
        # Create a trainable weight variable for this layer.
        self.kernel = self.add_weight(name='kernel', 
                                      shape=(input_shape[1], self.output_dim),
                                      initializer='uniform',
                                      trainable=True)
        super(MyLayer, self).build(input_shape)  # Be sure to call this at the end

    def call(self, x):
        return K.dot(x, self.kernel)

    def compute_output_shape(self, input_shape):
        return (input_shape[0], self.output_dim)

The existing Keras layers provide examples of how to implement almost anything. Never hesitate to read the source code!