### Convolution1D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.Convolution1D(nb_filter, filter_length, init='glorot_uniform', activation=None, weights=None, border_mode='valid', subsample_length=1, W_regularizer=None, b_regularizer=None, activity_regularizer=None, W_constraint=None, b_constraint=None, bias=True, input_dim=None, input_length=None)
```

Convolution operator for filtering neighborhoods of one-dimensional inputs.
When using this layer as the first layer in a model,
either provide the keyword argument `input_dim`

(int, e.g. 128 for sequences of 128-dimensional vectors),
or `input_shape`

(tuple of integers, e.g. (10, 128) for sequences
of 10 vectors of 128-dimensional vectors).

**Example**

```
# apply a convolution 1d of length 3 to a sequence with 10 timesteps,
# with 64 output filters
model = Sequential()
model.add(Convolution1D(64, 3, border_mode='same', input_shape=(10, 32)))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 10, 64)
# add a new conv1d on top
model.add(Convolution1D(32, 3, border_mode='same'))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 10, 32)
```

**Arguments**

**nb_filter**: Number of convolution kernels to use (dimensionality of the output).**filter_length**: The extension (spatial or temporal) of each filter.**init**: name of initialization function for the weights of the layer (see initializations), or alternatively, Theano function to use for weights initialization. This parameter is only relevant if you don't pass a`weights`

argument.**activation**: name of activation function to use (see activations), or alternatively, elementwise Theano function. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).**weights**: list of numpy arrays to set as initial weights.**border_mode**: 'valid', 'same' or 'full'. ('full' requires the Theano backend.)**subsample_length**: factor by which to subsample output.**W_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer, applied to the bias.**activity_regularizer**: instance of ActivityRegularizer, applied to the network output.**W_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_constraint**: instance of the constraints module, applied to the bias.**bias**: whether to include a bias (i.e. make the layer affine rather than linear).**input_dim**: Number of channels/dimensions in the input. Either this argument or the keyword argument`input_shape`

must be provided when using this layer as the first layer in a model.**input_length**: Length of input sequences, when it is constant. This argument is required if you are going to connect`Flatten`

then`Dense`

layers upstream (without it, the shape of the dense outputs cannot be computed).

**Input shape**

3D tensor with shape: `(samples, steps, input_dim)`

.

**Output shape**

3D tensor with shape: `(samples, new_steps, nb_filter)`

.
`steps`

value might have changed due to padding.

### AtrousConvolution1D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.AtrousConvolution1D(nb_filter, filter_length, init='glorot_uniform', activation=None, weights=None, border_mode='valid', subsample_length=1, atrous_rate=1, W_regularizer=None, b_regularizer=None, activity_regularizer=None, W_constraint=None, b_constraint=None, bias=True)
```

Atrous Convolution operator for filtering neighborhoods of one-dimensional inputs.
A.k.a dilated convolution or convolution with holes.
When using this layer as the first layer in a model,
either provide the keyword argument `input_dim`

(int, e.g. 128 for sequences of 128-dimensional vectors),
or `input_shape`

(tuples of integers, e.g. (10, 128) for sequences
of 10 vectors of 128-dimensional vectors).

**Example**

```
# apply an atrous convolution 1d with atrous rate 2 of length 3 to a sequence with 10 timesteps,
# with 64 output filters
model = Sequential()
model.add(AtrousConvolution1D(64, 3, atrous_rate=2, border_mode='same', input_shape=(10, 32)))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 10, 64)
# add a new atrous conv1d on top
model.add(AtrousConvolution1D(32, 3, atrous_rate=2, border_mode='same'))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 10, 32)
```

**Arguments**

**nb_filter**: Number of convolution kernels to use (dimensionality of the output).**filter_length**: The extension (spatial or temporal) of each filter.**init**: name of initialization function for the weights of the layer (see initializations), or alternatively, Theano function to use for weights initialization. This parameter is only relevant if you don't pass a`weights`

argument.**activation**: name of activation function to use (see activations), or alternatively, elementwise Theano function. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).**weights**: list of numpy arrays to set as initial weights.**border_mode**: 'valid', 'same' or 'full'. ('full' requires the Theano backend.)**subsample_length**: factor by which to subsample output.**atrous_rate**: Factor for kernel dilation. Also called filter_dilation elsewhere.**W_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer, applied to the bias.**activity_regularizer**: instance of ActivityRegularizer, applied to the network output.**W_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_constraint**: instance of the constraints module, applied to the bias.**bias**: whether to include a bias (i.e. make the layer affine rather than linear).**input_dim**: Number of channels/dimensions in the input. Either this argument or the keyword argument`input_shape`

must be provided when using this layer as the first layer in a model.**input_length**: Length of input sequences, when it is constant. This argument is required if you are going to connect`Flatten`

then`Dense`

layers upstream (without it, the shape of the dense outputs cannot be computed).

**Input shape**

3D tensor with shape: `(samples, steps, input_dim)`

.

**Output shape**

3D tensor with shape: `(samples, new_steps, nb_filter)`

.
`steps`

value might have changed due to padding.

### Convolution2D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.Convolution2D(nb_filter, nb_row, nb_col, init='glorot_uniform', activation=None, weights=None, border_mode='valid', subsample=(1, 1), dim_ordering='default', W_regularizer=None, b_regularizer=None, activity_regularizer=None, W_constraint=None, b_constraint=None, bias=True)
```

Convolution operator for filtering windows of two-dimensional inputs.
When using this layer as the first layer in a model,
provide the keyword argument `input_shape`

(tuple of integers, does not include the sample axis),
e.g. `input_shape=(3, 128, 128)`

for 128x128 RGB pictures.

**Examples**

```
# apply a 3x3 convolution with 64 output filters on a 256x256 image:
model = Sequential()
model.add(Convolution2D(64, 3, 3, border_mode='same', input_shape=(3, 256, 256)))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 64, 256, 256)
# add a 3x3 convolution on top, with 32 output filters:
model.add(Convolution2D(32, 3, 3, border_mode='same'))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 32, 256, 256)
```

**Arguments**

**nb_filter**: Number of convolution filters to use.**nb_row**: Number of rows in the convolution kernel.**nb_col**: Number of columns in the convolution kernel.**init**: name of initialization function for the weights of the layer (see initializations), or alternatively, Theano function to use for weights initialization. This parameter is only relevant if you don't pass a`weights`

argument.**activation**: name of activation function to use (see activations), or alternatively, elementwise Theano function. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).**weights**: list of numpy arrays to set as initial weights.**border_mode**: 'valid', 'same' or 'full'. ('full' requires the Theano backend.)**subsample**: tuple of length 2. Factor by which to subsample output. Also called strides elsewhere.**W_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer, applied to the bias.**activity_regularizer**: instance of ActivityRegularizer, applied to the network output.**W_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_constraint**: instance of the constraints module, applied to the bias.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 3. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".**bias**: whether to include a bias (i.e. make the layer affine rather than linear).

**Input shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, rows, cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, rows, cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, nb_filter, new_rows, new_cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, new_rows, new_cols, nb_filter)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.
`rows`

and `cols`

values might have changed due to padding.

### AtrousConvolution2D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.AtrousConvolution2D(nb_filter, nb_row, nb_col, init='glorot_uniform', activation=None, weights=None, border_mode='valid', subsample=(1, 1), atrous_rate=(1, 1), dim_ordering='default', W_regularizer=None, b_regularizer=None, activity_regularizer=None, W_constraint=None, b_constraint=None, bias=True)
```

Atrous Convolution operator for filtering windows of two-dimensional inputs.
A.k.a dilated convolution or convolution with holes.
When using this layer as the first layer in a model,
provide the keyword argument `input_shape`

(tuple of integers, does not include the sample axis),
e.g. `input_shape=(3, 128, 128)`

for 128x128 RGB pictures.

**Examples**

```
# apply a 3x3 convolution with atrous rate 2x2 and 64 output filters on a 256x256 image:
model = Sequential()
model.add(AtrousConvolution2D(64, 3, 3, atrous_rate=(2,2), border_mode='valid', input_shape=(3, 256, 256)))
# now the actual kernel size is dilated from 3x3 to 5x5 (3+(3-1)*(2-1)=5)
# thus model.output_shape == (None, 64, 252, 252)
```

**Arguments**

**nb_filter**: Number of convolution filters to use.**nb_row**: Number of rows in the convolution kernel.**nb_col**: Number of columns in the convolution kernel.**init**: name of initialization function for the weights of the layer (see initializations), or alternatively, Theano function to use for weights initialization. This parameter is only relevant if you don't pass a`weights`

argument.**activation**: name of activation function to use (see activations), or alternatively, elementwise Theano function. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).**weights**: list of numpy arrays to set as initial weights.**border_mode**: 'valid', 'same' or 'full'. ('full' requires the Theano backend.)**subsample**: tuple of length 2. Factor by which to subsample output. Also called strides elsewhere.**atrous_rate**: tuple of length 2. Factor for kernel dilation. Also called filter_dilation elsewhere.**W_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer, applied to the bias.**activity_regularizer**: instance of ActivityRegularizer, applied to the network output.**W_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_constraint**: instance of the constraints module, applied to the bias.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 3. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".**bias**: whether to include a bias (i.e. make the layer affine rather than linear).

**Input shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, rows, cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, rows, cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, nb_filter, new_rows, new_cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, new_rows, new_cols, nb_filter)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.
`rows`

and `cols`

values might have changed due to padding.

**References**

### SeparableConvolution2D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.SeparableConvolution2D(nb_filter, nb_row, nb_col, init='glorot_uniform', activation=None, weights=None, border_mode='valid', subsample=(1, 1), depth_multiplier=1, dim_ordering='default', depthwise_regularizer=None, pointwise_regularizer=None, b_regularizer=None, activity_regularizer=None, depthwise_constraint=None, pointwise_constraint=None, b_constraint=None, bias=True)
```

Separable convolution operator for 2D inputs.

Separable convolutions consist in first performing
a depthwise spatial convolution
(which acts on each input channel separately)
followed by a pointwise convolution which mixes together the resulting
output channels. The `depth_multiplier`

argument controls how many
output channels are generated per input channel in the depthwise step.

Intuitively, separable convolutions can be understood as a way to factorize a convolution kernel into two smaller kernels, or as an extreme version of an Inception block.

When using this layer as the first layer in a model,
provide the keyword argument `input_shape`

(tuple of integers, does not include the sample axis),
e.g. `input_shape=(3, 128, 128)`

for 128x128 RGB pictures.

**Theano warning**

This layer is only available with the TensorFlow backend for the time being.

**Arguments**

**nb_filter**: Number of convolution filters to use.**nb_row**: Number of rows in the convolution kernel.**nb_col**: Number of columns in the convolution kernel.**init**: name of initialization function for the weights of the layer (see initializations), or alternatively, Theano function to use for weights initialization. This parameter is only relevant if you don't pass a`weights`

argument.**activation**: name of activation function to use (see activations), or alternatively, elementwise Theano function. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).**weights**: list of numpy arrays to set as initial weights.**border_mode**: 'valid' or 'same'.**subsample**: tuple of length 2. Factor by which to subsample output. Also called strides elsewhere.**depth_multiplier**: how many output channel to use per input channel for the depthwise convolution step.**depthwise_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the depthwise weights matrix.**pointwise_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the pointwise weights matrix.**b_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer, applied to the bias.**activity_regularizer**: instance of ActivityRegularizer, applied to the network output.**depthwise_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the depthwise weights matrix.**pointwise_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the pointwise weights matrix.**b_constraint**: instance of the constraints module, applied to the bias.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 3. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".**bias**: whether to include a bias (i.e. make the layer affine rather than linear).

**Input shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, rows, cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, rows, cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, nb_filter, new_rows, new_cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, new_rows, new_cols, nb_filter)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.
`rows`

and `cols`

values might have changed due to padding.

### Deconvolution2D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.Deconvolution2D(nb_filter, nb_row, nb_col, output_shape, init='glorot_uniform', activation=None, weights=None, border_mode='valid', subsample=(1, 1), dim_ordering='default', W_regularizer=None, b_regularizer=None, activity_regularizer=None, W_constraint=None, b_constraint=None, bias=True)
```

Transposed convolution operator for filtering windows of two-dimensional inputs. The need for transposed convolutions generally arises from the desire to use a transformation going in the opposite direction of a normal convolution, i.e., from something that has the shape of the output of some convolution to something that has the shape of its input while maintaining a connectivity pattern that is compatible with said convolution. [1]

When using this layer as the first layer in a model,
provide the keyword argument `input_shape`

(tuple of integers, does not include the sample axis),
e.g. `input_shape=(3, 128, 128)`

for 128x128 RGB pictures.

To pass the correct `output_shape`

to this layer,
one could use a test model to predict and observe the actual output shape.

**Examples**

```
# apply a 3x3 transposed convolution with stride 1x1 and 3 output filters on a 12x12 image:
model = Sequential()
model.add(Deconvolution2D(3, 3, 3, output_shape=(None, 3, 14, 14), border_mode='valid', input_shape=(3, 12, 12)))
# Note that you will have to change the output_shape depending on the backend used.
# we can predict with the model and print the shape of the array.
dummy_input = np.ones((32, 3, 12, 12))
# For TensorFlow dummy_input = np.ones((32, 12, 12, 3))
preds = model.predict(dummy_input)
print(preds.shape)
# Theano GPU: (None, 3, 13, 13)
# Theano CPU: (None, 3, 14, 14)
# TensorFlow: (None, 14, 14, 3)
# apply a 3x3 transposed convolution with stride 2x2 and 3 output filters on a 12x12 image:
model = Sequential()
model.add(Deconvolution2D(3, 3, 3, output_shape=(None, 3, 25, 25), subsample=(2, 2), border_mode='valid', input_shape=(3, 12, 12)))
model.summary()
# we can predict with the model and print the shape of the array.
dummy_input = np.ones((32, 3, 12, 12))
# For TensorFlow dummy_input = np.ones((32, 12, 12, 3))
preds = model.predict(dummy_input)
print(preds.shape)
# Theano GPU: (None, 3, 25, 25)
# Theano CPU: (None, 3, 25, 25)
# TensorFlow: (None, 25, 25, 3)
```

**Arguments**

**nb_filter**: Number of transposed convolution filters to use.**nb_row**: Number of rows in the transposed convolution kernel.**nb_col**: Number of columns in the transposed convolution kernel.**output_shape**: Output shape of the transposed convolution operation. tuple of integers (nb_samples, nb_filter, nb_output_rows, nb_output_cols) Formula for calculation of the output shape [1], [2]: o = s (i - 1) + a + k - 2p, \quad a \in {0, \ldots, s - 1}**where**: i - input size (rows or cols), k - kernel size (nb_filter), s - stride (subsample for rows or cols respectively), p - padding size, a - user-specified quantity used to distinguish between the s different possible output sizes. Because a is not specified explicitly and Theano and Tensorflow use different values, it is better to use a dummy input and observe the actual output shape of a layer as specified in the examples.

**init**: name of initialization function for the weights of the layer (see initializations), or alternatively, Theano function to use for weights initialization. This parameter is only relevant if you don't pass a`weights`

argument.**activation**: name of activation function to use (see activations), or alternatively, elementwise Theano/TensorFlow function. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).**weights**: list of numpy arrays to set as initial weights.**border_mode**: 'valid', 'same' or 'full'. ('full' requires the Theano backend.)**subsample**: tuple of length 2. Factor by which to oversample output. Also called strides elsewhere.**W_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer, applied to the bias.**activity_regularizer**: instance of ActivityRegularizer, applied to the network output.**W_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_constraint**: instance of the constraints module, applied to the bias.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 3. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".**bias**: whether to include a bias (i.e. make the layer affine rather than linear).

**Input shape**

`(samples, channels, rows, cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, rows, cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

`(samples, nb_filter, new_rows, new_cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, new_rows, new_cols, nb_filter)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.
`rows`

and `cols`

values might have changed due to padding.

**References**

[1] A guide to convolution arithmetic for deep learning [2] Transposed convolution arithmetic [3] Deconvolutional Networks

### Convolution3D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.Convolution3D(nb_filter, kernel_dim1, kernel_dim2, kernel_dim3, init='glorot_uniform', activation=None, weights=None, border_mode='valid', subsample=(1, 1, 1), dim_ordering='default', W_regularizer=None, b_regularizer=None, activity_regularizer=None, W_constraint=None, b_constraint=None, bias=True)
```

Convolution operator for filtering windows of three-dimensional inputs.
When using this layer as the first layer in a model,
provide the keyword argument `input_shape`

(tuple of integers, does not include the sample axis),
e.g. `input_shape=(3, 10, 128, 128)`

for 10 frames of 128x128 RGB pictures.

**Arguments**

**nb_filter**: Number of convolution filters to use.**kernel_dim1**: Length of the first dimension in the convolution kernel.**kernel_dim2**: Length of the second dimension in the convolution kernel.**kernel_dim3**: Length of the third dimension in the convolution kernel.**init**: name of initialization function for the weights of the layer (see initializations), or alternatively, Theano function to use for weights initialization. This parameter is only relevant if you don't pass a`weights`

argument.**activation**: name of activation function to use (see activations), or alternatively, elementwise Theano function. If you don't specify anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).**weights**: list of Numpy arrays to set as initial weights.**border_mode**: 'valid', 'same' or 'full'. ('full' requires the Theano backend.)**subsample**: tuple of length 3. Factor by which to subsample output. Also called strides elsewhere.**Note**: 'subsample' is implemented by slicing the output of conv3d with strides=(1,1,1).

**W_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer (eg. L1 or L2 regularization), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_regularizer**: instance of WeightRegularizer, applied to the bias.**activity_regularizer**: instance of ActivityRegularizer, applied to the network output.**W_constraint**: instance of the constraints module (eg. maxnorm, nonneg), applied to the main weights matrix.**b_constraint**: instance of the constraints module, applied to the bias.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 4. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".**bias**: whether to include a bias (i.e. make the layer affine rather than linear).

**Input shape**

5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, conv_dim1, conv_dim2, conv_dim3)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, conv_dim1, conv_dim2, conv_dim3, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, nb_filter, new_conv_dim1, new_conv_dim2, new_conv_dim3)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, new_conv_dim1, new_conv_dim2, new_conv_dim3, nb_filter)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.
`new_conv_dim1`

, `new_conv_dim2`

and `new_conv_dim3`

values might have changed due to padding.

### Cropping1D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.Cropping1D(cropping=(1, 1))
```

Cropping layer for 1D input (e.g. temporal sequence). It crops along the time dimension (axis 1).

**Arguments**

**cropping**: tuple of int (length 2) How many units should be trimmed off at the beginning and end of the cropping dimension (axis 1).

**Input shape**

3D tensor with shape (samples, axis_to_crop, features)

**Output shape**

3D tensor with shape (samples, cropped_axis, features)

### Cropping2D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.Cropping2D(cropping=((0, 0), (0, 0)), dim_ordering='default')
```

Cropping layer for 2D input (e.g. picture). It crops along spatial dimensions, i.e. width and height.

**Arguments**

**cropping**: tuple of tuple of int (length 2) How many units should be trimmed off at the beginning and end of the 2 cropping dimensions (width, height).**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 3. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".

**Input shape**

4D tensor with shape: (samples, depth, first_axis_to_crop, second_axis_to_crop)

**Output shape**

4D tensor with shape: (samples, depth, first_cropped_axis, second_cropped_axis)

**Examples**

```
# Crop the input 2D images or feature maps
model = Sequential()
model.add(Cropping2D(cropping=((2, 2), (4, 4)), input_shape=(3, 28, 28)))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 3, 24, 20)
model.add(Convolution2D(64, 3, 3, border_mode='same))
model.add(Cropping2D(cropping=((2, 2), (2, 2))))
# now model.output_shape == (None, 64, 20, 16)
```

### Cropping3D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.Cropping3D(cropping=((1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1)), dim_ordering='default')
```

Cropping layer for 3D data (e.g. spatial or spatio-temporal).

**Arguments**

**cropping**: tuple of tuple of int (length 3) How many units should be trimmed off at the beginning and end of the 3 cropping dimensions (kernel_dim1, kernel_dim2, kernerl_dim3).**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 4. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".

**Input shape**

5D tensor with shape: (samples, depth, first_axis_to_crop, second_axis_to_crop, third_axis_to_crop)

**Output shape**

5D tensor with shape: (samples, depth, first_cropped_axis, second_cropped_axis, third_cropped_axis)

### UpSampling1D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.UpSampling1D(length=2)
```

Repeat each temporal step `length`

times along the time axis.

**Arguments**

**length**: integer. Upsampling factor.

**Input shape**

3D tensor with shape: `(samples, steps, features)`

.

**Output shape**

3D tensor with shape: `(samples, upsampled_steps, features)`

.

### UpSampling2D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.UpSampling2D(size=(2, 2), dim_ordering='default')
```

Repeat the rows and columns of the data by size[0] and size[1] respectively.

**Arguments**

**size**: tuple of 2 integers. The upsampling factors for rows and columns.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 3. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".

**Input shape**

`(samples, channels, rows, cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, rows, cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, upsampled_rows, upsampled_cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, upsampled_rows, upsampled_cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

### UpSampling3D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.UpSampling3D(size=(2, 2, 2), dim_ordering='default')
```

Repeat the first, second and third dimension of the data by size[0], size[1] and size[2] respectively.

**Arguments**

**size**: tuple of 3 integers. The upsampling factors for dim1, dim2 and dim3.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 4. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".

**Input shape**

5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, dim1, dim2, dim3)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, dim1, dim2, dim3, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, upsampled_dim1, upsampled_dim2, upsampled_dim3)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 5D tensor with shape:
`(samples, upsampled_dim1, upsampled_dim2, upsampled_dim3, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

### ZeroPadding1D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.ZeroPadding1D(padding=1)
```

Zero-padding layer for 1D input (e.g. temporal sequence).

**Arguments**

**padding**: int, or tuple of int (length 2), or dictionary.- If int: How many zeros to add at the beginning and end of the padding dimension (axis 1).
- If tuple of int (length 2) How many zeros to add at the beginning and at the end of the padding dimension, in order '(left_pad, right_pad)'.
- If dictionary: should contain the keys {'left_pad', 'right_pad'}. If any key is missing, default value of 0 will be used for the missing key.

**Input shape**

3D tensor with shape (samples, axis_to_pad, features)

**Output shape**

3D tensor with shape (samples, padded_axis, features)

### ZeroPadding2D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.ZeroPadding2D(padding=(1, 1), dim_ordering='default')
```

Zero-padding layer for 2D input (e.g. picture).

**Arguments**

**padding**: tuple of int (length 2), or tuple of int (length 4), or dictionary.- If tuple of int (length 2): How many zeros to add at the beginning and end of the 2 padding dimensions (rows and cols).
- If tuple of int (length 4): How many zeros to add at the beginning and at the end of the 2 padding dimensions (rows and cols), in the order '(top_pad, bottom_pad, left_pad, right_pad)'.
- If dictionary: should contain the keys {'top_pad', 'bottom_pad', 'left_pad', 'right_pad'}. If any key is missing, default value of 0 will be used for the missing key.

**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 3. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".

**Input shape**

`(samples, channels, rows, cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, rows, cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

**Output shape**

4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, channels, padded_rows, padded_cols)`

if dim_ordering='th'
or 4D tensor with shape:
`(samples, padded_rows, padded_cols, channels)`

if dim_ordering='tf'.

### ZeroPadding3D

```
keras.layers.convolutional.ZeroPadding3D(padding=(1, 1, 1), dim_ordering='default')
```

Zero-padding layer for 3D data (spatial or spatio-temporal).

**Arguments**

**padding**: tuple of int (length 3) How many zeros to add at the beginning and end of the 3 padding dimensions (axis 3, 4 and 5). Currently only symmetric padding is supported.**dim_ordering**: 'th' or 'tf'. In 'th' mode, the channels dimension (the depth) is at index 1, in 'tf' mode is it at index 4. It defaults to the`image_dim_ordering`

value found in your Keras config file at`~/.keras/keras.json`

. If you never set it, then it will be "tf".

**Input shape**

5D tensor with shape: (samples, depth, first_axis_to_pad, second_axis_to_pad, third_axis_to_pad)

**Output shape**

5D tensor with shape: (samples, depth, first_padded_axis, second_padded_axis, third_axis_to_pad)