Keras backends

What is a "backend"?

Keras is a model-level library, providing high-level building blocks for developing deep learning models. It does not handle itself low-level operations such as tensor products, convolutions and so on. Instead, it relies on a specialized, well-optimized tensor manipulation library to do so, serving as the "backend engine" of Keras. Rather than picking one single tensor library and making the implementation of Keras tied to that library, Keras handles the problem in a modular way, and several different backend engines can be plugged seamlessly into Keras.

At this time, Keras has three backend implementations available: the TensorFlow backend, the Theano backend, and the CNTK backend.

  • TensorFlow is an open-source symbolic tensor manipulation framework developed by Google.
  • Theano is an open-source symbolic tensor manipulation framework developed by LISA Lab at Université de Montréal.
  • CNTK is an open-source toolkit for deep learning developed by Microsoft.

In the future, we are likely to add more backend options.


Switching from one backend to another

If you have run Keras at least once, you will find the Keras configuration file at:

$HOME/.keras/keras.json

If it isn't there, you can create it.

NOTE for Windows Users: Please replace $HOME with %USERPROFILE%.

The default configuration file looks like this:

{
    "image_data_format": "channels_last",
    "epsilon": 1e-07,
    "floatx": "float32",
    "backend": "tensorflow"
}

Simply change the field backend to "theano", "tensorflow", or "cntk", and Keras will use the new configuration next time you run any Keras code.

You can also define the environment variable KERAS_BACKEND and this will override what is defined in your config file :

KERAS_BACKEND=tensorflow python -c "from keras import backend"
Using TensorFlow backend.

keras.json details

The keras.json configuration file contains the following settings:

{
    "image_data_format": "channels_last",
    "epsilon": 1e-07,
    "floatx": "float32",
    "backend": "tensorflow"
}

You can change these settings by editing $HOME/.keras/keras.json.

  • image_data_format: String, either "channels_last" or "channels_first". It specifies which data format convention Keras will follow. (keras.backend.image_data_format() returns it.)
  • For 2D data (e.g. image), "channels_last" assumes (rows, cols, channels) while "channels_first" assumes (channels, rows, cols).
  • For 3D data, "channels_last" assumes (conv_dim1, conv_dim2, conv_dim3, channels) while "channels_first" assumes (channels, conv_dim1, conv_dim2, conv_dim3).
  • epsilon: Float, a numeric fuzzing constant used to avoid dividing by zero in some operations.
  • floatx: String, "float16", "float32", or "float64". Default float precision.
  • backend: String, "tensorflow", "theano", or "cntk".

Using the abstract Keras backend to write new code

If you want the Keras modules you write to be compatible with both Theano (th) and TensorFlow (tf), you have to write them via the abstract Keras backend API. Here's an intro.

You can import the backend module via:

from keras import backend as K

The code below instantiates an input placeholder. It's equivalent to tf.placeholder() or th.tensor.matrix(), th.tensor.tensor3(), etc.

inputs = K.placeholder(shape=(2, 4, 5))
# also works:
inputs = K.placeholder(shape=(None, 4, 5))
# also works:
inputs = K.placeholder(ndim=3)

The code below instantiates a variable. It's equivalent to tf.Variable() or th.shared().

import numpy as np
val = np.random.random((3, 4, 5))
var = K.variable(value=val)

# all-zeros variable:
var = K.zeros(shape=(3, 4, 5))
# all-ones:
var = K.ones(shape=(3, 4, 5))

Most tensor operations you will need can be done as you would in TensorFlow or Theano:

# Initializing Tensors with Random Numbers
b = K.random_uniform_variable(shape=(3, 4)). # Uniform distribution
c = K.random_normal_variable(shape=(3, 4)). # Gaussian distribution
d = K.random_normal_variable(shape=(3, 4)).

# Tensor Arithmetic
a = b + c * K.abs(d)
c = K.dot(a, K.transpose(b))
a = K.sum(b, axis=1)
a = K.softmax(b)
a = K.concatenate([b, c], axis=-1)
# etc...

Backend functions

epsilon

keras.backend.epsilon()

Returns the value of the fuzz factor used in numeric expressions.

Returns

A float.

Example

>>> keras.backend.epsilon()
1e-08

set_epsilon

keras.backend.set_epsilon(e)

Sets the value of the fuzz factor used in numeric expressions.

Arguments

  • e: float. New value of epsilon.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> K.epsilon()
1e-08
>>> K.set_epsilon(1e-05)
>>> K.epsilon()
1e-05

floatx

keras.backend.floatx()

Returns the default float type, as a string. (e.g. 'float16', 'float32', 'float64').

Returns

String, the current default float type.

Example

>>> keras.backend.floatx()
'float32'

set_floatx

keras.backend.set_floatx(floatx)

Sets the default float type.

Arguments

  • floatx: String, 'float16', 'float32', or 'float64'.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> K.floatx()
'float32'
>>> K.set_floatx('float16')
>>> K.floatx()
'float16'

cast_to_floatx

keras.backend.cast_to_floatx(x)

Cast a Numpy array to the default Keras float type.

Arguments

  • x: Numpy array.

Returns

The same Numpy array, cast to its new type.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> K.floatx()
'float32'
>>> arr = numpy.array([1.0, 2.0], dtype='float64')
>>> arr.dtype
dtype('float64')
>>> new_arr = K.cast_to_floatx(arr)
>>> new_arr
array([ 1.,  2.], dtype=float32)
>>> new_arr.dtype
dtype('float32')

image_data_format

keras.backend.image_data_format()

Returns the default image data format convention ('channels_first' or 'channels_last').

Returns

A string, either 'channels_first' or 'channels_last'

Example

>>> keras.backend.image_data_format()
'channels_first'

set_image_data_format

keras.backend.set_image_data_format(data_format)

Sets the value of the data format convention.

Arguments

  • data_format: string. 'channels_first' or 'channels_last'.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> K.image_data_format()
'channels_first'
>>> K.set_image_data_format('channels_last')
>>> K.image_data_format()
'channels_last'

get_uid

keras.backend.get_uid(prefix='')

Get the uid for the default graph.

Arguments

  • prefix: An optional prefix of the graph.

Returns

A unique identifier for the graph.


reset_uids

keras.backend.reset_uids()

Reset graph identifiers.

clear_session

keras.backend.clear_session()

Destroys the current TF graph and creates a new one.

Useful to avoid clutter from old models / layers.


manual_variable_initialization

keras.backend.manual_variable_initialization(value)

Sets the manual variable initialization flag.

This boolean flag determines whether variables should be initialized as they are instantiated (default), or if the user should handle the initialization (e.g. via tf.initialize_all_variables()).

Arguments

  • value: Python boolean.

learning_phase

keras.backend.learning_phase()

Returns the learning phase flag.

The learning phase flag is a bool tensor (0 = test, 1 = train) to be passed as input to any Keras function that uses a different behavior at train time and test time.

Returns

Learning phase (scalar integer tensor or Python integer).


set_learning_phase

keras.backend.set_learning_phase(value)

Sets the learning phase to a fixed value.

Arguments

  • value: Learning phase value, either 0 or 1 (integers).

Raises

  • ValueError: if value is neither 0 nor 1.

max

keras.backend.max(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Maximum value in a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to find maximum values.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1. If keepdims is True, the reduced dimension is retained with length 1.

Returns

A tensor with maximum values of x.


min

keras.backend.min(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Minimum value in a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to find minimum values.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1. If keepdims is True, the reduced dimension is retained with length 1.

Returns

A tensor with miminum values of x.


sum

keras.backend.sum(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Sum of the values in a tensor, alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to sum over.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1. If keepdims is True, the reduced dimension is retained with length 1.

Returns

A tensor with sum of x.


prod

keras.backend.prod(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Multiplies the values in a tensor, alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to compute the product.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1. If keepdims is True, the reduced dimension is retained with length 1.

Returns

A tensor with the product of elements of x.


cumsum

keras.backend.cumsum(x, axis=0)

Cumulative sum of the values in a tensor, alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to compute the sum.

Returns

A tensor of the cumulative sum of values of x along axis.


cumprod

keras.backend.cumprod(x, axis=0)

Cumulative product of the values in a tensor, alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to compute the product.

Returns

A tensor of the cumulative product of values of x along axis.


var

keras.backend.var(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Variance of a tensor, alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to compute the variance.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1. If keepdims is True, the reduced dimension is retained with length 1.

Returns

A tensor with the variance of elements of x.


std

keras.backend.std(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Standard deviation of a tensor, alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to compute the standard deviation.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1. If keepdims is True, the reduced dimension is retained with length 1.

Returns

A tensor with the standard deviation of elements of x.


mean

keras.backend.mean(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Mean of a tensor, alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: A list of integer. Axes to compute the mean.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1 for each entry in axis. If keep_dims is True, the reduced dimensions are retained with length 1.

Returns

A tensor with the mean of elements of x.


any

keras.backend.any(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Bitwise reduction (logical OR).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • axis: axis along which to perform the reduction.
  • keepdims: whether the drop or broadcast the reduction axes.

Returns

A uint8 tensor (0s and 1s).


all

keras.backend.all(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Bitwise reduction (logical AND).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • axis: axis along which to perform the reduction.
  • keepdims: whether the drop or broadcast the reduction axes.

Returns

A uint8 tensor (0s and 1s).


argmax

keras.backend.argmax(x, axis=-1)

Returns the index of the maximum value along an axis.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • axis: axis along which to perform the reduction.

Returns

A tensor.


argmin

keras.backend.argmin(x, axis=-1)

Returns the index of the minimum value along an axis.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • axis: axis along which to perform the reduction.

Returns

A tensor.


square

keras.backend.square(x)

Element-wise square.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


abs

keras.backend.abs(x)

Element-wise absolute value.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


sqrt

keras.backend.sqrt(x)

Element-wise square root.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


exp

keras.backend.exp(x)

Element-wise exponential.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


log

keras.backend.log(x)

Element-wise log.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


logsumexp

keras.backend.logsumexp(x, axis=None, keepdims=False)

Computes log(sum(exp(elements across dimensions of a tensor))).

This function is more numerically stable than log(sum(exp(x))). It avoids overflows caused by taking the exp of large inputs and underflows caused by taking the log of small inputs.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: An integer, the axis to reduce over.
  • keepdims: A boolean, whether to keep the dimensions or not. If keepdims is False, the rank of the tensor is reduced by 1. If keepdims is True, the reduced dimension is retained with length 1.

Returns

The reduced tensor.


round

keras.backend.round(x)

Element-wise rounding to the closest integer.

In case of tie, the rounding mode used is "half to even".

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


sign

keras.backend.sign(x)

Element-wise sign.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


pow

keras.backend.pow(x, a)

Element-wise exponentiation.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • a: Python integer.

Returns

A tensor.


clip

keras.backend.clip(x, min_value, max_value)

Element-wise value clipping.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • min_value: Python float or integer.
  • max_value: Python float or integer.

Returns

A tensor.


equal

keras.backend.equal(x, y)

Element-wise equality between two tensors.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A bool tensor.


not_equal

keras.backend.not_equal(x, y)

Element-wise inequality between two tensors.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A bool tensor.


greater

keras.backend.greater(x, y)

Element-wise truth value of (x > y).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A bool tensor.


greater_equal

keras.backend.greater_equal(x, y)

Element-wise truth value of (x >= y).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A bool tensor.


less

keras.backend.less(x, y)

Element-wise truth value of (x < y).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A bool tensor.


less_equal

keras.backend.less_equal(x, y)

Element-wise truth value of (x <= y).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A bool tensor.


maximum

keras.backend.maximum(x, y)

Element-wise maximum of two tensors.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


minimum

keras.backend.minimum(x, y)

Element-wise minimum of two tensors.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


sin

keras.backend.sin(x)

Computes sin of x element-wise.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


cos

keras.backend.cos(x)

Computes cos of x element-wise.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


is_sparse

keras.backend.is_sparse(tensor)

Returns whether a tensor is a sparse tensor.

Arguments

  • tensor: A tensor instance.

Returns

A boolean.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> a = K.placeholder((2, 2), sparse=False)
>>> print(K.is_sparse(a))
False
>>> b = K.placeholder((2, 2), sparse=True)
>>> print(K.is_sparse(b))
True

to_dense

keras.backend.to_dense(tensor)

Converts a sparse tensor into a dense tensor and returns it.

Arguments

  • tensor: A tensor instance (potentially sparse).

Returns

A dense tensor.

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> b = K.placeholder((2, 2), sparse=True)
>>> print(K.is_sparse(b))
True
>>> c = K.to_dense(b)
>>> print(K.is_sparse(c))
False

variable

keras.backend.variable(value, dtype=None, name=None, constraint=None)

Instantiates a variable and returns it.

Arguments

  • value: Numpy array, initial value of the tensor.
  • dtype: Tensor type.
  • name: Optional name string for the tensor.
  • constraint: Optional projection function to be applied to the variable after an optimizer update.

Returns

A variable instance (with Keras metadata included).

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> val = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> kvar = K.variable(value=val, dtype='float64', name='example_var')
>>> K.dtype(kvar)
'float64'
>>> print(kvar)
example_var
>>> kvar.eval()
array([[ 1.,  2.],
       [ 3.,  4.]])

constant

keras.backend.constant(value, dtype=None, shape=None, name=None)

Creates a constant tensor.

Arguments

  • value: A constant value (or list)
  • dtype: The type of the elements of the resulting tensor.
  • shape: Optional dimensions of resulting tensor.
  • name: Optional name for the tensor.

Returns

A Constant Tensor.


is_keras_tensor

keras.backend.is_keras_tensor(x)

Returns whether x is a Keras tensor.

A "Keras tensor" is a tensor that was returned by a Keras layer, (Layer class) or by Input.

Arguments

  • x: A candidate tensor.

Returns

A boolean: Whether the argument is a Keras tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: In case x is not a symbolic tensor.

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> from keras.layers import Input, Dense
>>> np_var = numpy.array([1, 2])
>>> K.is_keras_tensor(np_var) # A numpy array is not a symbolic tensor.
ValueError
>>> k_var = tf.placeholder('float32', shape=(1,1))
>>> K.is_keras_tensor(k_var) # A variable indirectly created outside of keras is not a Keras tensor.
False
>>> keras_var = K.variable(np_var)
>>> K.is_keras_tensor(keras_var)  # A variable created with the keras backend is not a Keras tensor.
False
>>> keras_placeholder = K.placeholder(shape=(2, 4, 5))
>>> K.is_keras_tensor(keras_placeholder)  # A placeholder is not a Keras tensor.
False
>>> keras_input = Input([10])
>>> K.is_keras_tensor(keras_input) # An Input is a Keras tensor.
True
>>> keras_layer_output = Dense(10)(keras_input)
>>> K.is_keras_tensor(keras_layer_output) # Any Keras layer output is a Keras tensor.
True

placeholder

keras.backend.placeholder(shape=None, ndim=None, dtype=None, sparse=False, name=None)

Instantiates a placeholder tensor and returns it.

Arguments

  • shape: Shape of the placeholder (integer tuple, may include None entries).
  • ndim: Number of axes of the tensor. At least one of {shape, ndim} must be specified. If both are specified, shape is used.
  • dtype: Placeholder type.
  • sparse: Boolean, whether the placeholder should have a sparse type.
  • name: Optional name string for the placeholder.

Returns

Tensor instance (with Keras metadata included).

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> input_ph = K.placeholder(shape=(2, 4, 5))
>>> input_ph._keras_shape
(2, 4, 5)
>>> input_ph
<tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_4:0' shape=(2, 4, 5) dtype=float32>

is_placeholder

keras.backend.is_placeholder(x)

Returns whether x is a placeholder.

Arguments

  • x: A candidate placeholder.

Returns

Boolean.


shape

keras.backend.shape(x)

Returns the symbolic shape of a tensor or variable.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A symbolic shape (which is itself a tensor).

Examples

# TensorFlow example
>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> tf_session = K.get_session()
>>> val = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> kvar = K.variable(value=val)
>>> inputs = keras.backend.placeholder(shape=(2, 4, 5))
>>> K.shape(kvar)
<tf.Tensor 'Shape_8:0' shape=(2,) dtype=int32>
>>> K.shape(inputs)
<tf.Tensor 'Shape_9:0' shape=(3,) dtype=int32>
# To get integer shape (Instead, you can use K.int_shape(x))
>>> K.shape(kvar).eval(session=tf_session)
array([2, 2], dtype=int32)
>>> K.shape(inputs).eval(session=tf_session)
array([2, 4, 5], dtype=int32)

int_shape

keras.backend.int_shape(x)

Returns the shape of tensor or variable as a tuple of int or None entries.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tuple of integers (or None entries).

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> inputs = K.placeholder(shape=(2, 4, 5))
>>> K.int_shape(inputs)
(2, 4, 5)
>>> val = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> kvar = K.variable(value=val)
>>> K.int_shape(kvar)
(2, 2)

ndim

keras.backend.ndim(x)

Returns the number of axes in a tensor, as an integer.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

Integer (scalar), number of axes.

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> inputs = K.placeholder(shape=(2, 4, 5))
>>> val = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> kvar = K.variable(value=val)
>>> K.ndim(inputs)
3
>>> K.ndim(kvar)
2

dtype

keras.backend.dtype(x)

Returns the dtype of a Keras tensor or variable, as a string.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

String, dtype of x.

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> K.dtype(K.placeholder(shape=(2,4,5)))
'float32'
>>> K.dtype(K.placeholder(shape=(2,4,5), dtype='float32'))
'float32'
>>> K.dtype(K.placeholder(shape=(2,4,5), dtype='float64'))
'float64'
# Keras variable
>>> kvar = K.variable(np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]))
>>> K.dtype(kvar)
'float32_ref'
>>> kvar = K.variable(np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]), dtype='float32')
>>> K.dtype(kvar)
'float32_ref'

eval

keras.backend.eval(x)

Evaluates the value of a variable.

Arguments

  • x: A variable.

Returns

A Numpy array.

Examples

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> kvar = K.variable(np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]), dtype='float32')
>>> K.eval(kvar)
array([[ 1.,  2.],
       [ 3.,  4.]], dtype=float32)

zeros

keras.backend.zeros(shape, dtype=None, name=None)

Instantiates an all-zeros variable and returns it.

Arguments

  • shape: Tuple of integers, shape of returned Keras variable
  • dtype: String, data type of returned Keras variable
  • name: String, name of returned Keras variable

Returns

A variable (including Keras metadata), filled with 0.0.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> kvar = K.zeros((3,4))
>>> K.eval(kvar)
array([[ 0.,  0.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  0.,  0.]], dtype=float32)

ones

keras.backend.ones(shape, dtype=None, name=None)

Instantiates an all-ones tensor variable and returns it.

Arguments

  • shape: Tuple of integers, shape of returned Keras variable.
  • dtype: String, data type of returned Keras variable.
  • name: String, name of returned Keras variable.

Returns

A Keras variable, filled with 1.0.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> kvar = K.ones((3,4))
>>> K.eval(kvar)
array([[ 1.,  1.,  1.,  1.],
       [ 1.,  1.,  1.,  1.],
       [ 1.,  1.,  1.,  1.]], dtype=float32)

eye

keras.backend.eye(size, dtype=None, name=None)

Instantiate an identity matrix and returns it.

Arguments

  • size: Integer, number of rows/columns.
  • dtype: String, data type of returned Keras variable.
  • name: String, name of returned Keras variable.

Returns

A Keras variable, an identity matrix.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> kvar = K.eye(3)
>>> K.eval(kvar)
array([[ 1.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  1.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  1.]], dtype=float32)

zeros_like

keras.backend.zeros_like(x, dtype=None, name=None)

Instantiates an all-zeros variable of the same shape as another tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Keras variable or Keras tensor.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned Keras variable. None uses the dtype of x.
  • name: String, name for the variable to create.

Returns

A Keras variable with the shape of x filled with zeros.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> kvar = K.variable(np.random.random((2,3)))
>>> kvar_zeros = K.zeros_like(kvar)
>>> K.eval(kvar_zeros)
array([[ 0.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  0.]], dtype=float32)

ones_like

keras.backend.ones_like(x, dtype=None, name=None)

Instantiates an all-ones variable of the same shape as another tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Keras variable or tensor.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned Keras variable. None uses the dtype of x.
  • name: String, name for the variable to create.

Returns

A Keras variable with the shape of x filled with ones.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> kvar = K.variable(np.random.random((2,3)))
>>> kvar_ones = K.ones_like(kvar)
>>> K.eval(kvar_ones)
array([[ 1.,  1.,  1.],
       [ 1.,  1.,  1.]], dtype=float32)

identity

keras.backend.identity(x, name=None)

Returns a tensor with the same content as the input tensor.

Arguments

  • x: The input tensor.
  • name: String, name for the variable to create.

Returns

A tensor of the same shape, type and content.


random_uniform_variable

keras.backend.random_uniform_variable(shape, low, high, dtype=None, name=None, seed=None)

Instantiates a variable with values drawn from a uniform distribution.

Arguments

  • shape: Tuple of integers, shape of returned Keras variable.
  • low: Float, lower boundary of the output interval.
  • high: Float, upper boundary of the output interval.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned Keras variable.
  • name: String, name of returned Keras variable.
  • seed: Integer, random seed.

Returns

A Keras variable, filled with drawn samples.

Example

# TensorFlow example
>>> kvar = K.random_uniform_variable((2,3), 0, 1)
>>> kvar
<tensorflow.python.ops.variables.Variable object at 0x10ab40b10>
>>> K.eval(kvar)
array([[ 0.10940075,  0.10047495,  0.476143  ],
       [ 0.66137183,  0.00869417,  0.89220798]], dtype=float32)

random_normal_variable

keras.backend.random_normal_variable(shape, mean, scale, dtype=None, name=None, seed=None)

Instantiates a variable with values drawn from a normal distribution.

Arguments

  • shape: Tuple of integers, shape of returned Keras variable.
  • mean: Float, mean of the normal distribution.
  • scale: Float, standard deviation of the normal distribution.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned Keras variable.
  • name: String, name of returned Keras variable.
  • seed: Integer, random seed.

Returns

A Keras variable, filled with drawn samples.

Example

# TensorFlow example
>>> kvar = K.random_normal_variable((2,3), 0, 1)
>>> kvar
<tensorflow.python.ops.variables.Variable object at 0x10ab12dd0>
>>> K.eval(kvar)
array([[ 1.19591331,  0.68685907, -0.63814116],
       [ 0.92629528,  0.28055015,  1.70484698]], dtype=float32)

count_params

keras.backend.count_params(x)

Returns the static number of elements in a Keras variable or tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Keras variable or tensor.

Returns

Integer, the number of elements in x, i.e., the product of the array's static dimensions.

Example

>>> kvar = K.zeros((2,3))
>>> K.count_params(kvar)
6
>>> K.eval(kvar)
array([[ 0.,  0.,  0.],
       [ 0.,  0.,  0.]], dtype=float32)

cast

keras.backend.cast(x, dtype)

Casts a tensor to a different dtype and returns it.

You can cast a Keras variable but it still returns a Keras tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Keras tensor (or variable).
  • dtype: String, either ('float16', 'float32', or 'float64').

Returns

Keras tensor with dtype dtype.

Example

>>> from keras import backend as K
>>> input = K.placeholder((2, 3), dtype='float32')
>>> input
<tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_2:0' shape=(2, 3) dtype=float32>
# It doesn't work in-place as below.
>>> K.cast(input, dtype='float16')
<tf.Tensor 'Cast_1:0' shape=(2, 3) dtype=float16>
>>> input
<tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_2:0' shape=(2, 3) dtype=float32>
# you need to assign it.
>>> input = K.cast(input, dtype='float16')
>>> input
<tf.Tensor 'Cast_2:0' shape=(2, 3) dtype=float16>

update

keras.backend.update(x, new_x)

Update the value of x to new_x.

Arguments

  • x: A Variable.
  • new_x: A tensor of same shape as x.

Returns

The variable x updated.


update_add

keras.backend.update_add(x, increment)

Update the value of x by adding increment.

Arguments

  • x: A Variable.
  • increment: A tensor of same shape as x.

Returns

The variable x updated.


update_sub

keras.backend.update_sub(x, decrement)

Update the value of x by subtracting decrement.

Arguments

  • x: A Variable.
  • decrement: A tensor of same shape as x.

Returns

The variable x updated.


moving_average_update

keras.backend.moving_average_update(x, value, momentum)

Compute the moving average of a variable.

Arguments

  • x: A Variable.
  • value: A tensor with the same shape as x.
  • momentum: The moving average momentum.

Returns

An operation to update the variable.


dot

keras.backend.dot(x, y)

Multiplies 2 tensors (and/or variables) and returns a tensor.

When attempting to multiply a nD tensor with a nD tensor, it reproduces the Theano behavior. (e.g. (2, 3) * (4, 3, 5) -> (2, 4, 5))

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • y: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor, dot product of x and y.

Examples

# dot product between tensors
>>> x = K.placeholder(shape=(2, 3))
>>> y = K.placeholder(shape=(3, 4))
>>> xy = K.dot(x, y)
>>> xy
<tf.Tensor 'MatMul_9:0' shape=(2, 4) dtype=float32>
# dot product between tensors
>>> x = K.placeholder(shape=(32, 28, 3))
>>> y = K.placeholder(shape=(3, 4))
>>> xy = K.dot(x, y)
>>> xy
<tf.Tensor 'MatMul_9:0' shape=(32, 28, 4) dtype=float32>
# Theano-like behavior example
>>> x = K.random_uniform_variable(shape=(2, 3), low=0, high=1)
>>> y = K.ones((4, 3, 5))
>>> xy = K.dot(x, y)
>>> K.int_shape(xy)
(2, 4, 5)

batch_dot

keras.backend.batch_dot(x, y, axes=None)

Batchwise dot product.

batch_dot is used to compute dot product of x and y when x and y are data in batch, i.e. in a shape of (batch_size, :). batch_dot results in a tensor or variable with less dimensions than the input. If the number of dimensions is reduced to 1, we use expand_dims to make sure that ndim is at least 2.

Arguments

  • x: Keras tensor or variable with ndim >= 2.
  • y: Keras tensor or variable with ndim >= 2.
  • axes: list of (or single) int with target dimensions. The lengths of axes[0] and axes[1] should be the same.

Returns

A tensor with shape equal to the concatenation of x's shape (less the dimension that was summed over) and y's shape (less the batch dimension and the dimension that was summed over). If the final rank is 1, we reshape it to (batch_size, 1).

Examples

Assume x = [[1, 2], [3, 4]] and y = [[5, 6], [7, 8]] batch_dot(x, y, axes=1) = [[17, 53]] which is the main diagonal of x.dot(y.T), although we never have to calculate the off-diagonal elements.

Shape inference: Let x's shape be (100, 20) and y's shape be (100, 30, 20). If axes is (1, 2), to find the output shape of resultant tensor, loop through each dimension in x's shape and y's shape:

  • x.shape[0] : 100 : append to output shape
  • x.shape[1] : 20 : do not append to output shape, dimension 1 of x has been summed over. (dot_axes[0] = 1)
  • y.shape[0] : 100 : do not append to output shape, always ignore first dimension of y
  • y.shape[1] : 30 : append to output shape
  • y.shape[2] : 20 : do not append to output shape, dimension 2 of y has been summed over. (dot_axes[1] = 2) output_shape = (100, 30)
>>> x_batch = K.ones(shape=(32, 20, 1))
>>> y_batch = K.ones(shape=(32, 30, 20))
>>> xy_batch_dot = K.batch_dot(x_batch, y_batch, axes=[1, 2])
>>> K.int_shape(xy_batch_dot)
(32, 1, 30)

transpose

keras.backend.transpose(x)

Transposes a tensor and returns it.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.

Examples

>>> var = K.variable([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]])
>>> K.eval(var)
array([[ 1.,  2.,  3.],
       [ 4.,  5.,  6.]], dtype=float32)
>>> var_transposed = K.transpose(var)
>>> K.eval(var_transposed)
array([[ 1.,  4.],
       [ 2.,  5.],
       [ 3.,  6.]], dtype=float32)
>>> inputs = K.placeholder((2, 3))
>>> inputs
<tf.Tensor 'Placeholder_11:0' shape=(2, 3) dtype=float32>
>>> input_transposed = K.transpose(inputs)
>>> input_transposed
<tf.Tensor 'transpose_4:0' shape=(3, 2) dtype=float32>


gather

keras.backend.gather(reference, indices)

Retrieves the elements of indices indices in the tensor reference.

Arguments

  • reference: A tensor.
  • indices: An integer tensor of indices.

Returns

A tensor of same type as reference.


normalize_batch_in_training

keras.backend.normalize_batch_in_training(x, gamma, beta, reduction_axes, epsilon=0.001)

Computes mean and std for batch then apply batch_normalization on batch.

Arguments

  • x: Input tensor or variable.
  • gamma: Tensor by which to scale the input.
  • beta: Tensor with which to center the input.
  • reduction_axes: iterable of integers, axes over which to normalize.
  • epsilon: Fuzz factor.

Returns

A tuple length of 3, (normalized_tensor, mean, variance).


batch_normalization

keras.backend.batch_normalization(x, mean, var, beta, gamma, epsilon=0.001)

Applies batch normalization on x given mean, var, beta and gamma.

I.e. returns: output = (x - mean) / (sqrt(var) + epsilon) * gamma + beta

Arguments

  • x: Input tensor or variable.
  • mean: Mean of batch.
  • var: Variance of batch.
  • beta: Tensor with which to center the input.
  • gamma: Tensor by which to scale the input.
  • epsilon: Fuzz factor.

Returns

A tensor.


concatenate

keras.backend.concatenate(tensors, axis=-1)

Concatenates a list of tensors alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • tensors: list of tensors to concatenate.
  • axis: concatenation axis.

Returns

A tensor.


reshape

keras.backend.reshape(x, shape)

Reshapes a tensor to the specified shape.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • shape: Target shape tuple.

Returns

A tensor.


permute_dimensions

keras.backend.permute_dimensions(x, pattern)

Permutes axes in a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • pattern: A tuple of dimension indices, e.g. (0, 2, 1).

Returns

A tensor.


resize_images

keras.backend.resize_images(x, height_factor, width_factor, data_format)

Resizes the images contained in a 4D tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable to resize.
  • height_factor: Positive integer.
  • width_factor: Positive integer.
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".

Returns

A tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither "channels_last" or "channels_first".

resize_volumes

keras.backend.resize_volumes(x, depth_factor, height_factor, width_factor, data_format)

Resizes the volume contained in a 5D tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable to resize.
  • depth_factor: Positive integer.
  • height_factor: Positive integer.
  • width_factor: Positive integer.
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".

Returns

A tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither "channels_last" or "channels_first".

repeat_elements

keras.backend.repeat_elements(x, rep, axis)

Repeats the elements of a tensor along an axis, like np.repeat.

If x has shape (s1, s2, s3) and axis is 1, the output will have shape (s1, s2 * rep, s3).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • rep: Python integer, number of times to repeat.
  • axis: Axis along which to repeat.

Returns

A tensor.


repeat

keras.backend.repeat(x, n)

Repeats a 2D tensor.

if x has shape (samples, dim) and n is 2, the output will have shape (samples, 2, dim).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • n: Python integer, number of times to repeat.

Returns

A tensor.


arange

keras.backend.arange(start, stop=None, step=1, dtype='int32')

Creates a 1D tensor containing a sequence of integers.

The function arguments use the same convention as Theano's arange: if only one argument is provided, it is in fact the "stop" argument.

The default type of the returned tensor is 'int32' to match TensorFlow's default.

Arguments

  • start: Start value.
  • stop: Stop value.
  • step: Difference between two successive values.
  • dtype: Integer dtype to use.

Returns

An integer tensor.


tile

keras.backend.tile(x, n)

Creates a tensor by tiling x by n.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable
  • n: A list of integer. The length must be the same as the number of dimensions in x.

Returns

A tiled tensor.


flatten

keras.backend.flatten(x)

Flatten a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor, reshaped into 1-D


batch_flatten

keras.backend.batch_flatten(x)

Turn a nD tensor into a 2D tensor with same 0th dimension.

In other words, it flattens each data samples of a batch.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


expand_dims

keras.backend.expand_dims(x, axis=-1)

Adds a 1-sized dimension at index "axis".

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: Position where to add a new axis.

Returns

A tensor with expanded dimensions.


squeeze

keras.backend.squeeze(x, axis)

Removes a 1-dimension from the tensor at index "axis".

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • axis: Axis to drop.

Returns

A tensor with the same data as x but reduced dimensions.


temporal_padding

keras.backend.temporal_padding(x, padding=(1, 1))

Pads the middle dimension of a 3D tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • padding: Tuple of 2 integers, how many zeros to add at the start and end of dim 1.

Returns

A padded 3D tensor.


spatial_2d_padding

keras.backend.spatial_2d_padding(x, padding=((1, 1), (1, 1)), data_format=None)

Pads the 2nd and 3rd dimensions of a 4D tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • padding: Tuple of 2 tuples, padding pattern.
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".

Returns

A padded 4D tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither "channels_last" or "channels_first".

spatial_3d_padding

keras.backend.spatial_3d_padding(x, padding=((1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1)), data_format=None)

Pads 5D tensor with zeros along the depth, height, width dimensions.

Pads these dimensions with respectively "padding[0]", "padding[1]" and "padding[2]" zeros left and right.

For 'channels_last' data_format, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th dimension will be padded. For 'channels_first' data_format, the 3rd, 4th and 5th dimension will be padded.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • padding: Tuple of 3 tuples, padding pattern.
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".

Returns

A padded 5D tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither "channels_last" or "channels_first".

stack

keras.backend.stack(x, axis=0)

Stacks a list of rank R tensors into a rank R+1 tensor.

Arguments

  • x: List of tensors.
  • axis: Axis along which to perform stacking.

Returns

A tensor.


one_hot

keras.backend.one_hot(indices, num_classes)

Computes the one-hot representation of an integer tensor.

Arguments

  • indices: nD integer tensor of shape (batch_size, dim1, dim2, ... dim(n-1))
  • num_classes: Integer, number of classes to consider.

Returns

(n + 1)D one hot representation of the input with shape (batch_size, dim1, dim2, ... dim(n-1), num_classes)


reverse

keras.backend.reverse(x, axes)

Reverse a tensor along the specified axes.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor to reverse.
  • axes: Integer or iterable of integers. Axes to reverse.

Returns

A tensor.


get_value

keras.backend.get_value(x)

Returns the value of a variable.

Arguments

  • x: input variable.

Returns

A Numpy array.


batch_get_value

keras.backend.batch_get_value(ops)

Returns the value of more than one tensor variable.

Arguments

  • ops: list of ops to run.

Returns

A list of Numpy arrays.


set_value

keras.backend.set_value(x, value)

Sets the value of a variable, from a Numpy array.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor to set to a new value.
  • value: Value to set the tensor to, as a Numpy array (of the same shape).

batch_set_value

keras.backend.batch_set_value(tuples)

Sets the values of many tensor variables at once.

Arguments

  • tuples: a list of tuples (tensor, value). value should be a Numpy array.

keras.backend.print_tensor(x, message='')

Prints message and the tensor value when evaluated.

Note that print_tensor returns a new tensor identical to x which should be used in the following code. Otherwise the print operation is not taken into account during evaluation.

Example

>>> x = K.print_tensor(x, message="x is: ")

Arguments

  • x: Tensor to print.
  • message: Message to print jointly with the tensor.

Returns

The same tensor x, unchanged.


function

keras.backend.function(inputs, outputs, updates=None)

Instantiates a Keras function.

Arguments

  • inputs: List of placeholder tensors.
  • outputs: List of output tensors.
  • updates: List of update ops.
  • **kwargs: Passed to tf.Session.run.

Returns

Output values as Numpy arrays.

Raises

  • ValueError: if invalid kwargs are passed in.

gradients

keras.backend.gradients(loss, variables)

Returns the gradients of variables w.r.t. loss.

Arguments

  • loss: Scalar tensor to minimize.
  • variables: List of variables.

Returns

A gradients tensor.


stop_gradient

keras.backend.stop_gradient(variables)

Returns variables but with zero gradient w.r.t. every other variable.

Arguments

  • variables: tensor or list of tensors to consider constant with respect to any other variable.

Returns

A single tensor or a list of tensors (depending on the passed argument) that has constant gradient with respect to any other variable.


rnn

keras.backend.rnn(step_function, inputs, initial_states, go_backwards=False, mask=None, constants=None, unroll=False, input_length=None)

Iterates over the time dimension of a tensor.

Arguments

  • step_function: RNN step function.
  • Parameters:
  • inputs: tensor with shape (samples, ...) (no time dimension), representing input for the batch of samples at a certain time step.
  • states: list of tensors.
  • Returns:
  • outputs: tensor with shape (samples, output_dim) (no time dimension).
  • new_states: list of tensors, same length and shapes as 'states'. The first state in the list must be the output tensor at the previous timestep.
  • inputs: tensor of temporal data of shape (samples, time, ...) (at least 3D).
  • initial_states: tensor with shape (samples, output_dim) (no time dimension), containing the initial values for the states used in the step function.
  • go_backwards: boolean. If True, do the iteration over the time dimension in reverse order and return the reversed sequence.
  • mask: binary tensor with shape (samples, time, 1), with a zero for every element that is masked.
  • constants: a list of constant values passed at each step.
  • unroll: whether to unroll the RNN or to use a symbolic loop (while_loop or scan depending on backend).
  • input_length: not relevant in the TensorFlow implementation. Must be specified if using unrolling with Theano.

Returns

A tuple, (last_output, outputs, new_states).

  • last_output: the latest output of the rnn, of shape (samples, ...)
  • outputs: tensor with shape (samples, time, ...) where each entry outputs[s, t] is the output of the step function at time t for sample s.
  • new_states: list of tensors, latest states returned by the step function, of shape (samples, ...).

Raises

  • ValueError: if input dimension is less than 3.
  • ValueError: if unroll is True but input timestep is not a fixed number.
  • ValueError: if mask is provided (not None) but states is not provided (len(states) == 0).

switch

keras.backend.switch(condition, then_expression, else_expression)

Switches between two operations depending on a scalar value.

Note that both then_expression and else_expression should be symbolic tensors of the same shape.

Arguments

  • condition: tensor (int or bool).
  • then_expression: either a tensor, or a callable that returns a tensor.
  • else_expression: either a tensor, or a callable that returns a tensor.

Returns

The selected tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: If rank of condition is greater than rank of expressions.

in_train_phase

keras.backend.in_train_phase(x, alt, training=None)

Selects x in train phase, and alt otherwise.

Note that alt should have the same shape as x.

Arguments

  • x: What to return in train phase (tensor or callable that returns a tensor).
  • alt: What to return otherwise (tensor or callable that returns a tensor).
  • training: Optional scalar tensor (or Python boolean, or Python integer) specifying the learning phase.

Returns

Either x or alt based on the training flag. the training flag defaults to K.learning_phase().


in_test_phase

keras.backend.in_test_phase(x, alt, training=None)

Selects x in test phase, and alt otherwise.

Note that alt should have the same shape as x.

Arguments

  • x: What to return in test phase (tensor or callable that returns a tensor).
  • alt: What to return otherwise (tensor or callable that returns a tensor).
  • training: Optional scalar tensor (or Python boolean, or Python integer) specifying the learning phase.

Returns

Either x or alt based on K.learning_phase.


relu

keras.backend.relu(x, alpha=0.0, max_value=None)

Rectified linear unit.

With default values, it returns element-wise max(x, 0).

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.
  • alpha: A scalar, slope of negative section (default=0.).
  • max_value: Saturation threshold.

Returns

A tensor.


elu

keras.backend.elu(x, alpha=1.0)

Exponential linear unit.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable to compute the activation function for.
  • alpha: A scalar, slope of positive section.

Returns

A tensor.


softmax

keras.backend.softmax(x)

Softmax of a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


softplus

keras.backend.softplus(x)

Softplus of a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


softsign

keras.backend.softsign(x)

Softsign of a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


categorical_crossentropy

keras.backend.categorical_crossentropy(target, output, from_logits=False)

Categorical crossentropy between an output tensor and a target tensor.

Arguments

  • target: A tensor of the same shape as output.
  • output: A tensor resulting from a softmax (unless from_logits is True, in which case output is expected to be the logits).
  • from_logits: Boolean, whether output is the result of a softmax, or is a tensor of logits.

Returns

Output tensor.


sparse_categorical_crossentropy

keras.backend.sparse_categorical_crossentropy(target, output, from_logits=False)

Categorical crossentropy with integer targets.

Arguments

  • target: An integer tensor.
  • output: A tensor resulting from a softmax (unless from_logits is True, in which case output is expected to be the logits).
  • from_logits: Boolean, whether output is the result of a softmax, or is a tensor of logits.

Returns

Output tensor.


binary_crossentropy

keras.backend.binary_crossentropy(target, output, from_logits=False)

Binary crossentropy between an output tensor and a target tensor.

Arguments

  • target: A tensor with the same shape as output.
  • output: A tensor.
  • from_logits: Whether output is expected to be a logits tensor. By default, we consider that output encodes a probability distribution.

Returns

A tensor.


sigmoid

keras.backend.sigmoid(x)

Element-wise sigmoid.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


hard_sigmoid

keras.backend.hard_sigmoid(x)

Segment-wise linear approximation of sigmoid.

Faster than sigmoid. Returns 0. if x < -2.5, 1. if x > 2.5. In -2.5 <= x <= 2.5, returns 0.2 * x + 0.5.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


tanh

keras.backend.tanh(x)

Element-wise tanh.

Arguments

  • x: A tensor or variable.

Returns

A tensor.


dropout

keras.backend.dropout(x, level, noise_shape=None, seed=None)

Sets entries in x to zero at random, while scaling the entire tensor.

Arguments

  • x: tensor
  • level: fraction of the entries in the tensor that will be set to 0.
  • noise_shape: shape for randomly generated keep/drop flags, must be broadcastable to the shape of x
  • seed: random seed to ensure determinism.

Returns

A tensor.


l2_normalize

keras.backend.l2_normalize(x, axis=None)

Normalizes a tensor wrt the L2 norm alongside the specified axis.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • axis: axis along which to perform normalization.

Returns

A tensor.


in_top_k

keras.backend.in_top_k(predictions, targets, k)

Returns whether the targets are in the top k predictions.

Arguments

  • predictions: A tensor of shape (batch_size, classes) and type float32.
  • targets: A 1D tensor of length batch_size and type int32 or int64.
  • k: An int, number of top elements to consider.

Returns

A 1D tensor of length batch_size and type bool. output[i] is True if predictions[i, targets[i]] is within top-k values of predictions[i].


conv1d

keras.backend.conv1d(x, kernel, strides=1, padding='valid', data_format=None, dilation_rate=1)

1D convolution.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • kernel: kernel tensor.
  • strides: stride integer.
  • padding: string, "same", "causal" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".
  • dilation_rate: integer dilate rate.

Returns

A tensor, result of 1D convolution.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

conv2d

keras.backend.conv2d(x, kernel, strides=(1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None, dilation_rate=(1, 1))

2D convolution.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • kernel: kernel tensor.
  • strides: strides tuple.
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first". Whether to use Theano or TensorFlow/CNTK data format for inputs/kernels/outputs.
  • dilation_rate: tuple of 2 integers.

Returns

A tensor, result of 2D convolution.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

conv2d_transpose

keras.backend.conv2d_transpose(x, kernel, output_shape, strides=(1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None)

2D deconvolution (i.e. transposed convolution).

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • kernel: kernel tensor.
  • output_shape: 1D int tensor for the output shape.
  • strides: strides tuple.
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first". Whether to use Theano or TensorFlow/CNTK data format for inputs/kernels/outputs.

Returns

A tensor, result of transposed 2D convolution.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

separable_conv2d

keras.backend.separable_conv2d(x, depthwise_kernel, pointwise_kernel, strides=(1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None, dilation_rate=(1, 1))

2D convolution with separable filters.

Arguments

  • x: input tensor
  • depthwise_kernel: convolution kernel for the depthwise convolution.
  • pointwise_kernel: kernel for the 1x1 convolution.
  • strides: strides tuple (length 2).
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".
  • dilation_rate: tuple of integers, dilation rates for the separable convolution.

Returns

Output tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

depthwise_conv2d

keras.backend.depthwise_conv2d(x, depthwise_kernel, strides=(1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None, dilation_rate=(1, 1))

2D convolution with separable filters.

Arguments

  • x: input tensor
  • depthwise_kernel: convolution kernel for the depthwise convolution.
  • strides: strides tuple (length 2).
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".
  • dilation_rate: tuple of integers, dilation rates for the separable convolution.

Returns

Output tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

conv3d

keras.backend.conv3d(x, kernel, strides=(1, 1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None, dilation_rate=(1, 1, 1))

3D convolution.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • kernel: kernel tensor.
  • strides: strides tuple.
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first". Whether to use Theano or TensorFlow/CNTK data format for inputs/kernels/outputs.
  • dilation_rate: tuple of 3 integers.

Returns

A tensor, result of 3D convolution.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

conv3d_transpose

keras.backend.conv3d_transpose(x, kernel, output_shape, strides=(1, 1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None)

3D deconvolution (i.e. transposed convolution).

Arguments

  • x: input tensor.
  • kernel: kernel tensor.
  • output_shape: 1D int tensor for the output shape.
  • strides: strides tuple.
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first". Whether to use Theano or TensorFlow/CNTK data format for inputs/kernels/outputs.

Returns

A tensor, result of transposed 3D convolution.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

pool2d

keras.backend.pool2d(x, pool_size, strides=(1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None, pool_mode='max')

2D Pooling.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • pool_size: tuple of 2 integers.
  • strides: tuple of 2 integers.
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".
  • pool_mode: string, "max" or "avg".

Returns

A tensor, result of 2D pooling.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither "channels_last" or "channels_first".
  • ValueError: if pool_mode is neither "max" or "avg".

pool3d

keras.backend.pool3d(x, pool_size, strides=(1, 1, 1), padding='valid', data_format=None, pool_mode='max')

3D Pooling.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • pool_size: tuple of 3 integers.
  • strides: tuple of 3 integers.
  • padding: string, "same" or "valid".
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".
  • pool_mode: string, "max" or "avg".

Returns

A tensor, result of 3D pooling.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither "channels_last" or "channels_first".
  • ValueError: if pool_mode is neither "max" or "avg".

bias_add

keras.backend.bias_add(x, bias, data_format=None)

Adds a bias vector to a tensor.

Arguments

  • x: Tensor or variable.
  • bias: Bias tensor to add.
  • data_format: string, "channels_last" or "channels_first".

Returns

Output tensor.

Raises

  • ValueError: In one of the two cases below:
  • invalid data_format argument.
  • invalid bias shape. the bias should be either a vector or a tensor with ndim(x) - 1 dimension

random_normal

keras.backend.random_normal(shape, mean=0.0, stddev=1.0, dtype=None, seed=None)

Returns a tensor with normal distribution of values.

Arguments

  • shape: A tuple of integers, the shape of tensor to create.
  • mean: A float, mean of the normal distribution to draw samples.
  • stddev: A float, standard deviation of the normal distribution to draw samples.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned tensor.
  • seed: Integer, random seed.

Returns

A tensor.


random_uniform

keras.backend.random_uniform(shape, minval=0.0, maxval=1.0, dtype=None, seed=None)

Returns a tensor with uniform distribution of values.

Arguments

  • shape: A tuple of integers, the shape of tensor to create.
  • minval: A float, lower boundary of the uniform distribution to draw samples.
  • maxval: A float, upper boundary of the uniform distribution to draw samples.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned tensor.
  • seed: Integer, random seed.

Returns

A tensor.


random_binomial

keras.backend.random_binomial(shape, p=0.0, dtype=None, seed=None)

Returns a tensor with random binomial distribution of values.

Arguments

  • shape: A tuple of integers, the shape of tensor to create.
  • p: A float, 0. <= p <= 1, probability of binomial distribution.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned tensor.
  • seed: Integer, random seed.

Returns

A tensor.


truncated_normal

keras.backend.truncated_normal(shape, mean=0.0, stddev=1.0, dtype=None, seed=None)

Returns a tensor with truncated random normal distribution of values.

The generated values follow a normal distribution with specified mean and standard deviation, except that values whose magnitude is more than two standard deviations from the mean are dropped and re-picked.

Arguments

  • shape: A tuple of integers, the shape of tensor to create.
  • mean: Mean of the values.
  • stddev: Standard deviation of the values.
  • dtype: String, dtype of returned tensor.
  • seed: Integer, random seed.

Returns

A tensor.


ctc_label_dense_to_sparse

keras.backend.ctc_label_dense_to_sparse(labels, label_lengths)

Converts CTC labels from dense to sparse.

Arguments

  • labels: dense CTC labels.
  • label_lengths: length of the labels.

Returns

A sparse tensor representation of the labels.


ctc_batch_cost

keras.backend.ctc_batch_cost(y_true, y_pred, input_length, label_length)

Runs CTC loss algorithm on each batch element.

Arguments

  • y_true: tensor (samples, max_string_length) containing the truth labels.
  • y_pred: tensor (samples, time_steps, num_categories) containing the prediction, or output of the softmax.
  • input_length: tensor (samples, 1) containing the sequence length for each batch item in y_pred.
  • label_length: tensor (samples, 1) containing the sequence length for each batch item in y_true.

Returns

Tensor with shape (samples,1) containing the CTC loss of each element.


ctc_decode

keras.backend.ctc_decode(y_pred, input_length, greedy=True, beam_width=100, top_paths=1)

Decodes the output of a softmax.

Can use either greedy search (also known as best path) or a constrained dictionary search.

Arguments

  • y_pred: tensor (samples, time_steps, num_categories) containing the prediction, or output of the softmax.
  • input_length: tensor (samples, ) containing the sequence length for each batch item in y_pred.
  • greedy: perform much faster best-path search if true. This does not use a dictionary.
  • beam_width: if greedy is false: a beam search decoder will be used with a beam of this width.
  • top_paths: if greedy is false, how many of the most probable paths will be returned.

Returns

  • Tuple:
  • List: if greedy is true, returns a list of one element that contains the decoded sequence. If false, returns the top_paths most probable decoded sequences.
  • Important: blank labels are returned as -1. Tensor (top_paths, ) that contains the log probability of each decoded sequence.

map_fn

keras.backend.map_fn(fn, elems, name=None, dtype=None)

Map the function fn over the elements elems and return the outputs.

Arguments

  • fn: Callable that will be called upon each element in elems
  • elems: tensor
  • name: A string name for the map node in the graph
  • dtype: Output data type.

Returns

Tensor with dtype dtype.


foldl

keras.backend.foldl(fn, elems, initializer=None, name=None)

Reduce elems using fn to combine them from left to right.

Arguments

  • fn: Callable that will be called upon each element in elems and an accumulator, for instance lambda acc, x: acc + x
  • elems: tensor
  • initializer: The first value used (elems[0] in case of None)
  • name: A string name for the foldl node in the graph

Returns

Tensor with same type and shape as initializer.


foldr

keras.backend.foldr(fn, elems, initializer=None, name=None)

Reduce elems using fn to combine them from right to left.

Arguments

  • fn: Callable that will be called upon each element in elems and an accumulator, for instance lambda acc, x: acc + x
  • elems: tensor
  • initializer: The first value used (elems[-1] in case of None)
  • name: A string name for the foldr node in the graph

Returns

Tensor with same type and shape as initializer.


local_conv1d

keras.backend.local_conv1d(inputs, kernel, kernel_size, strides, data_format=None)

Apply 1D conv with un-shared weights.

Arguments

  • inputs: 3D tensor with shape: (batch_size, steps, input_dim)
  • kernel: the unshared weight for convolution, with shape (output_length, feature_dim, filters)
  • kernel_size: a tuple of a single integer, specifying the length of the 1D convolution window
  • strides: a tuple of a single integer, specifying the stride length of the convolution
  • data_format: the data format, channels_first or channels_last

Returns

the tensor after 1d conv with un-shared weights, with shape (batch_size, output_length, filters)

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

local_conv2d

keras.backend.local_conv2d(inputs, kernel, kernel_size, strides, output_shape, data_format=None)

Apply 2D conv with un-shared weights.

Arguments

  • inputs: 4D tensor with shape: (batch_size, filters, new_rows, new_cols) if data_format='channels_first' or 4D tensor with shape: (batch_size, new_rows, new_cols, filters) if data_format='channels_last'.
  • kernel: the unshared weight for convolution, with shape (output_items, feature_dim, filters)
  • kernel_size: a tuple of 2 integers, specifying the width and height of the 2D convolution window.
  • strides: a tuple of 2 integers, specifying the strides of the convolution along the width and height.
  • output_shape: a tuple with (output_row, output_col)
  • data_format: the data format, channels_first or channels_last

Returns

A 4d tensor with shape: (batch_size, filters, new_rows, new_cols) if data_format='channels_first' or 4D tensor with shape: (batch_size, new_rows, new_cols, filters) if data_format='channels_last'.

Raises

  • ValueError: if data_format is neither channels_last or channels_first.

backend

backend.backend()

Publicly accessible method for determining the current backend.

Returns

String, the name of the backend Keras is currently using.

Example

>>> keras.backend.backend()
'tensorflow'